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In the times of Kyivan Rus Khreshchatyk was the outskirts of Kyiv. The Khreshchata Valley surrounded this part of the ancient city and in the area of the Maidan went to the marshland – the Goat Marsh. This area was covered with a forest, in which there were a lot of living creatures. When the princes of Kyiv and their relatives went hunting, a whole banquet was organized with hymns and performances. In order not to infringe upon the significance of this or that prince, for whom the first to commend the commemorative chants, each of them took one hawk on them hunting. Whose hawk was stronger, that was preferred.
At the present Maidan during the times of Kyivan Rus were located Lyadsky Gates – one of the main gates of the entrance to the city. There were three such gates: the Golden Gates (still preserved, near the metro station with the same name), the Lviv Gates (not preserved, were located in the area of Lviv Square, exact location is unknown) and Lyadsky Gate (until now the foundation is preserved, which can be seen by going down to the restaurant “OB “). The strengthening of the Lyadsky Gate was not given proper attention, since they considered impregnable due to the swampy surrounding area, through which the Ancient Kyiv was taken by Khan Baty in 1241.
There are many versions of the origin of the street name. According to some researchers, the name “Khreshchatyk” came from the name of the area “Khreshchata Valley”. There is a version that at the end of the XVIII century the name “Khreshchatyk” had Naberezhno-Khreschatytska Street, which then began from the Khreshchatytski Gates, built at the site of the present Postal Square. The Khreshchatyk road passed from these gates to the present European Square.
Now it is the main street of Kyiv, 1,3 km long, located between the European and Bessarabska squares, crossing the main square of the capital – Independence Square. Active build-up of Khreshchatyk falls on the end of the XVIII – early XIX centuries. Firstly was built up the plot from the European Square to Prorizna Street. In 1837, the street was extended to Bessarabska Square, giving the name Khreschatytska Street. Since 1869 the name Khreshchatyk was fixed. Until the early 1940’s the street was built up mainly by 3 and 4-storey buildings, standing s a solid facade, and its width was 35 m. Today Khreshchatyk is not only the central street of the capital, but also the main place for visiting by citizens and tourists. On weekends and holidays, traffic is blocked here and the street becomes pedestrian. On such days concerts, parades, social events, etc. are held here. Along the Kreschatyk there are many offices, shops, boutiques, restaurants, cafes and pubs, as well as shopping malls, namely the Central Department Store and Globus mall.
X Prorіzna Street – a small street, adjacent to Khreshchatyk. It is originated in the middle of the XIX century during the reconstruction of Kyiv in place of the defensive rampart of the Starokyiv fortifications of the times of Yaroslav the Wise. According to the reconstruction plan, the old fortifications were destroyed, one of the ramparts was “cut through” and a street was laid, which was called Martynovska (by the name of the landlord), later – Zolotokhreschatytska Street, Prorizna Street, Vasylchikovska Street, in Soviet times – Sverdlova Street. The current name of the street is fixed from the 1990’s (“cut” through the earthen rampart). During the German occupation, the street was badly damaged. The street has a modern look since the 1950s. On the street is located the Young Theatre (1902), the monument to Panikovsky, the hero of the novel “The Golden Calf”, the monument to the theatre director Les Kurbas, the founder of the Young Theatre, on whose building (house №17) in his honour was installed a memorial plaque.
X Monument to Panikovsky – a monument to “a man without a passport”, a bright character of the novel “The Golden Calf”, written by Ilf and Petrov. The monument appeared on Prorizna Street in 1998 and represents a blind man with a walking stick in dark glasses and a hat, with a spoon on a chain in his pocket. An interesting fact is that if you put the mirror to the sole of the shoe, you can see the fig. With the appearance of the monument, the citizens now have a sign – touching Panikovsky’s left shoe means improvement of financial affairs.
X The monument to Les Kurbas is a monument to the well-known Ukrainian theatre director and actor, the founder of the Ukrainian modern theatre and the head of the Young Theatre, located on Prorizna Street, 17. A memorial plaque is installed on the facade of the theatre building. A monument was opened in 2002. Les Kurbas was the director-experimenter, engaged in the reform of the national theatre. Unfortunately, he was accused of bourgeois nationalism by the Soviet authorities, for what he was arrested and sentenced to death.
X Khreshchatyk Street is the main street of Kyiv 1.3 km long, located between the European and Bessarabian squares, crossing the main square of the capital – Independence Square. In the times of Kyivan Rus part of Khreshchatyk (from the Independence Square to the European Square) was called Perevesyshche and was located outside of Kyiv. This area was covered with forest, in which local princes went hunting for small animals and birds with the help of “perevisiv” (nets). According to some researchers, the name “Khreshchatyk” came from the name of the area “Khreshchata Valley”. There is a version that at the end of the XVIII century the name “Khreshchatyk” had Naberezhno-Khreschatytska Street, which then began from the Khreshchatytski Gates, built at the site of the present Postal Square. The Khreshchatyk road passed from these gates to the present European Square. Active build-up of Khreshchatyk falls on the end of the XVIII – early XIX centuries. Firstly was built up the plot from the European Square to Prorizna Street. In 1837, the street was extended to Bessarabska Square, giving the name Khreschatytska Street. Since 1869 the name Khreshchatyk was fixed. Until the early 1940’s the street was built up mainly by 3 and 4-storey buildings, standing as a solid facade.
X Kyiv City State Administration – the building of the Kyiv City Hall, located on Khreshchatyk, 36, was built by architect A. Malynovsky in 1957 (years of construction – 1952-1957). The first three floors are faced with red granite, the rest – with ceramics. Originally it was planned to build a building in 22 floors with a spire decorated with sculptural images of workers and collective farmers. Since 2007 the Museum of gifts of the Kyiv City Hall was opened in the building, where gifts to the first persons of the administration are collected. The museum can be visited by appointment. In 2014, the mayor’s office was overhauled. It is worth noting that the building is decorated with a facade clock with decoration, exterior lighting, beat and chime.
X The Central Department Store (TSUM) is one of the largest retail outlets located in the centre of the capital. Construction of the building as the largest supermarket was started in the 1930s in the style of Soviet constructivism. TSUM was opened for visitors since 1939. The new building became dominant among the buildings of Khreshchatyk. During the German occupation, TSUM burned and was severely damaged. After the war the building was reconstructed and completed from the side of Kreshchatyk Str., thereby increasing the square of the trading platform. The last reconstruction of the Central Department Store was carried out in the period of 2012-2016. Today the renovated and modern central department store of the capital is open to customers. In addition to shopping in the Central Department Store there are cafes and restaurants, as well as art exhibitions.
X “House with a star” – was built in 1954, becoming the tallest building in the capital until 1981. The house is located on a hill at Khreshchatyk 25. The top of the building is decorated with a spire with a star that glowed at night. In 1956, on the first floor of the building, the “Druzhba” cinema was opened, after which the building took the second name “Druzhba”. Today in the “House with a star” are rented expensive luxury apartments.
X Passage – a building in the form of houses-streets, consisting of two parallel to each other buildings in the style of neoclassicism with the original stucco, connected by arches. In the late XIX-XX centuries at the place of the passage the Shtifner estate was located, which was purchased by the insurance company for building here a large business centre with shops and offices. The beginning of the construction of the arcade – 1913. In connection with the outbreak of the World War I, construction was stopped, and in 1941 the building was exploded. After the war, the passage has been reconstructed, completed the building with an arch from the front. At one time in the buildings of the passage lived famous people – opera singer Boris Hmyrya, writer Viktor Nekrasov and others. In the 1990s before the entrance to the passage was installed a fountain , which becomes not only a decoration, but also a meeting place. In the Passage there is also a monument to the great architect Gorodetskyi. Today, in the buildings of the Passage, expensive boutiques, offices and restaurants are located on the first floors, residential apartments on the upper floors, mainly rent of luxury apartments. Also in the passage is the favourite citizens’ and tourists’ pub “Docker”. At the entrance to the Passage is the Alley of Stars – Ukrainian figures of culture and sport.
X Bessarabska Square – located at the intersection of Khreshchatyk, Shevchenko Boulevard, Basseyna and Velyka Vasylkivska Streets. It has been originated at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries as a horse post station, next to which a spontaneous bazaar was soon formed. This area was the outskirts of Kyiv until the middle of the XIX century. Earlier at this site there was a Lutheran cemetery (XVI – the beginning of the XVIII centuries), which was moved in connection with the development of Khreshchatyk. Near the square was a swimming pool with underground springs. Its current name the square bears since 1881. It housed one of the largest markets of the capital. The city authorities decided to build a covered market in order to ennoble the trading territory. The opening of the Bessarabska market took place in 1912. It was the first indoor market in Kyiv and the main object of the square. A special feature of the construction is steel structures with lanterns supporting the roof, and the facade of the building is decorated with stucco and clockwork. The Bessarabska market has been fully preserved to the present day. Today Bessarabska Square is one of the central squares of the capital.
X Kostelna Street was founded in the 1830s and is named in honour of the church located in the upper part of the street. In the period of 1934-1991 it was called Chelyuskintsev Street in honour of the feat of participants of the polar drift on the steamship “Chelyuskin” in 1934. The street almost completely preserved the architecture of the turn of the XIX – XX centuries, mainly represented by profitable houses (houses №3, 4, 7, 8, 9), which today are monuments of architecture. The main attraction of the street is the complex of the Catholic Cathedral of St. Alexander (XIX century). This is the only street in Kyiv, which is listed in the State Register of Immovable Monuments of Ukraine. Along the street on each facade of the house there are memorial plaques. Here at one time lived famous personalities – the composer I. Shamo (the author of the song “How do not love you, my Kyiv”), the aircraft designer S. Korolyov, the mathematician N. Bogolyubov and others.
X The Alexander church (the church of St. Alexander) – or the Cathedral of St. Alexander, was erected in 1842 with the funds of the Kyiv Roman Catholic community, mostly Poles. The construction of the church began in 1817. It named after the Russian Tsar Alexander (he gave permission to erect the church), and the place where the church was built, was the location of the triumphal arch in honour of Alexander I. The church became the centre of spiritual and cultural life of the Roman Catholic community of Kyiv. By the end of the XIX century the number of parishioners was more than 33 thousand people (the total number of residents in Kyiv – 188 488 people). In 1879, the future artist Kazimir Malevich was baptized in the church. With the coming of Soviet power in the temple was a storage room, later – a dormitory, since 1952 – a planetarium. In the 1990’s. The Alexander church was again opened to the parishioners. The main relic of the temple is the crucifix brought from Italy and a copy of Raphael’s Madonna. In addition to the church service, organ music concerts are held in the church. In 2001, a small German organ was installed in the Aleksander church, which was handed over by the community of the German city of Herzogenaurach. In 2001 the Pope John Paul II visited the church. Today it is the main Catholic temple in Kyiv.
X Kozerovskyi’s profitable house – building at Kostelna Street, 7 is an architectural monument, erected in the period of 1910-1913 in the style of modern by the architect I. Ledochovskyi and decorated with sculptures by F. Sokolov (the sculptor’s autograph can be seen above the arch of the house). The house belonged to the nobleman Olexandr Kozerovskyi (according to some information – an officer). Roman figures MDCCCX on the facade of the building mean 1913. The building became famous for the figures of the Atlanteans, which support the pedestal with a huge vase, decorating the facade of the building.
X Profitable house – located at the address Kostelna Street, 9, built in 1912-1913 in the modern style with elements of Gothic architecture designed by architect Abram Trachtenberg. On the facade of the building are depicted paradise birds with the head of a virgin (sirens in Slavic mythology). At one time in this house lived a famous aircraft designer S.Korolyov, under whose leadership the first artificial satellite of Earth and the first cosmonaut of the planet Yuri Gagarin was launched.
X Bohdana Khmelnytskogo Street is one of the central streets of the capital, adjacent to Khreshchatyk. It is originated in the 1830s and was called the Kadetska Street, since 1869 it was called Fundukleyevska in honour of the Governor of Kyiv I. Fundukley. From the middle of the XIX century the street begins to be actively built up. The first buildings that adorn the street are the buildings of the Fundukleevska Women’s Gymnasium (house №6, 1850’s) and the Anatomical Theatre (house №37, 1851-1853, architect A. Beretti), preserved to this day. At the turn of the XIX – XX centuries on the street appeared the Bourgogne Theatre (house №5), the College of Pavlo Galagan (№9а, №11), hotels, profitable houses, etc. In 1892 along the street was laid one of the first tram lines, at the same time the street was paved with paving stones. With the coming of Soviet power, the street was renamed Lenin Street. The current name street bears since 1992. The street has almost completely preserved up to now the architecture of the turn of the XIX – XX centuries, which has, in addition, historical value. Nowadays the street is also full of life and movement. Here are located museums, theatres, business centres, embassies, shops, restaurants and cafes.
X Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of Russian Drama is located at Bohdana Khmelnytskogo Street, 5 and occupies the building of the former Bourgogne Theatre. Having bought in 1868 a site at the intersection of the current of B. Khmelnytskogo and Pushkinska streets, the Frenchman Bourgogne built a temporary circus for equestrian performances (1874). But already in 1875 Bourgogne built a stone two-storey building of the theatre, deciding to rent out the premises for circus and theatrical collectives. In 1878 was built another two-storey building, where the inside was the theatre, and on the 2nd floor was the hotel “Lyon”. At that time, the theatre-circus Al-Kazar, the circus of J. Leonardo, the drama theatre “The Public Theatre”, the theatre of the entrepreneur N. Savin, etc., were working and giving performances here. In 1883, Bourgogne reconstructed the room for a drama theatre, calling it “The Bourgogne Theatre”. Famous theatrical troupes performed in the theatre, Italian opera troupes toured, there also held demonstrations of films. In the 1930s the building of the theatre was significantly rebuilt. Today, here is the Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of Russian Drama.
X Fundukleyevska Women’s Gymnasium – a building located on the Bohdana Khmelnytskogo Street, 6. Women’s Gymnasium was founded in 1860 on the territory of the estate and financed by the governor of Kyiv I. Fundukley, becoming the first female gymnasium not only in Kyiv, but also in the Russian Empire. After that not only the gymnasium, but also the street itself was called Fundukleyevska. The graduates of the gymnasium were the poetess A.Akhmatova, the opera singer K.Derzhinskaya, the princess of Thailand K.Desnitskaya, etc. Today Naftogaz of Ukraine is placed in the building of the former gymnasium for women.
X The Anatomical theatre – a building at B. Khmelnytskogo, 37 built in the period of 1851-1853 (Architect A. Beretti). The Anatomical Theatre of the Medical Faculty of the Kyiv University of St. Volodymyr (today – T.Shevchenko Kyiv National University) was opened in 1853, and was called among scientists a palace of science. There were equipped rooms, a library and a collection of anatomical preparations. Anatomical theatre was famous for its unique museum collections of professors A.P. Walter and V. A. Bez, becoming the best in Europe. Famous doctors with a world-famous name worked here, great discoveries were made, which not only Kyiv University, but also glorifies the national medical science. Since 1973 in the building housed the Museum of Medicine, which today is one of the largest medical museums in Europe. The building is an architectural monument.
X “RoLit House” – the cooperative house of writers “Worker of Literature” (“ROLIT”), built in the 1930s on the B. Khmelnytskogo Street, 68. Here once lived and worked famous writers and cultural figures, among them O. Gonchar, P. Tychyna, M. Rylskyi, V. Sosyura and others. The house is the record holder by the number of memorial plaques – on its facade 29 commemorative plaques were installed. Since 1970, ROLIT has been declared a historical monument. Memorial rooms of the writers A. Kopylenko and O. Honchar, composer B. Lyatoshynskyi and others were preserved in it. Today, the building is mainly occupied by offices.
X Pushkinska Street – a street in the centre of the capital, originated in the 1840’s and was called Elizabethan Street. In the 1870’s the street was extended due to the construction of a wasteland (opposite the Taras Shevchenko University) and was completely formed. Since 1899, the street has become known as Pushkinska Street and gained its fame due to the People bath Michelson (the corner of Pushkinska and Lva Tolstogo streets), which were opened by one of the richest people of the capital, merchant Michelson. Michelson himself lived with his family in house №40. In addition to bathhouses on the street, there were profitable houses (houses №21, 33, 45/2) and enterprises (house №7 – “Solomon Cohen’s” tobacco factory). At one time, famous figures of culture and art lived on the street, as well as scientific figures – writer I.Nechuy-Levytsky, opera singer Z.Haydai, conductor V.Tolba, etc. Until now, the street almost completely preserved the architecture of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.
X Mini-mosque – located in the yard at the corner of Pushkinska and Prorizna street. The place is called “the Eastern yard” by the citizens. Not everyone knows about the territory, which is closed to passersby and belongs to the embassy of Turkmenistan. A piece of the East, built by the embassy, resembles a Turkmen district in miniature. The architectural ensemble consists of terraces, arbours with a dome and two small minarets, inside the yard is laid a garden. The territory is blocked by a white stone fence and you can’t be reached on it, but it is possible to view the buildings from the outside.
X Baksant’s profitable house – located on Pushkinska Str., 21 and built in 1909-1910 on the order of the Czech businessman Karl Baxant. The building was built in the modern style according to the project of the famous architect Josef Zektser. The facade of the building is decorated with a picturesque decoration, marble steps are preserved inside. This house is also famous for its residents. So, in the period of 1944-1984 here lived the famous Ukrainian conductor Veniamin Tolba. Veniamin Tolba was awarded the Stalin Prize. Today in this building there are offices and expensive apartments.
X Snezhko and Khlebnikova’s profitable house – one of the most beautiful buildings in the style of the Neo-Russian architecture, adorned Pushkinska Street (house №45 \ 2). The apartment house was built in the period of 1899-1901 on the order of the owner of the brick factories of Ilya Snezhko. On the first floor of the building there were expensive shops and a hairdresser’s, on the other floors – apartments for rent. Today in the building locate shops and offices.
X Basseyna Street -one of the central streets, starts from Bessarabska Square, originated in the beginning of the XIX century and began to be actively built up. By the end of XIX century the street acquired a modern look. Many buildings of the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries preserved to the present day. Once in the middle of the street there was a boulevard, but it was partly liquidated for improvement the traffic interchange. Today Basseyna Street is a busy place, although the length of the street is only about 300 m.
X The former hotel “Palais Royal” – a building located on Basseyna Street №1 \ 2, was built in 1899-1900 by famous architect A.Krauss in the style of neo-renaissance. In the early XX century here is located the school of the foremen of road and construction workers. During the nationalization the building became an apartment house. Until now, the building preserved unchanged and decorates the street with its attire. Today on the 1st floor there are cafes and restaurants, at the top – apartments.
X “Arena City” mall is a premium shopping complex, one of the most pompous buildings located on the corner of Basseyna and Velyka Vasylkivska streets. The corner of the house №1 on V. Vasylkivska was built in 1896, in the period of 1899-1900 – part of the complex from the side of Bessarabska Square and Basseyna Street, 2, and in 1900-1901 – part of the building along the street Velyka Vasylkivska , 3. These three parts are so similar in design that they are perceived as one large building. All buildings are the work of a well-known architect A.Krauss. Originally, the building belonged to the commercial adviser and the owner of dozens of houses in the centre of Kyiv – Mykola Popov, who earned a lot of money from rent. On the first floors there were shops and coffee shops, on the upper floors – expensive furnished rooms, first class hotels “Orion” and “Berlin”. Since the 1920’s here housed a working clinic named after Lenin, and in the 1930s and also student dormitories and apartments of workers of the “Lenin Forge”. In the post-war years, the building was a city hospital. In the 1980s institutions and tenants are evicted from the building, returning the building to a commercial purpose. After reconstruction in 2005 complex was decorated with stucco, panoramic elevators, attics, fountains, the tower system dominates. Today here locate exhibitions, offices, restaurants and clubs – Pinchuk Art Centre, Skybar, Arena Dance Club and Mandarin Plaza.
X Independence Square is the central square of the capital and the main square of the country’s significant events. This area is known even before the X century and was called “Perevesyshche”, representing a dense marshy thickets. By the end of the XVIII century at the place of the square was a wasteland, and the place itself popularly was called the “Goat’s Marsh”. The area was formed as a square in the 1830s, and was named Khreshchatytska after the Khreshchatyi tract. The area was cleared, the first wooden houses were erected. On the square there was a constantly functioning bazaar, there were held folk festivals. In 1876, on the square was built State Duma, after which the square was called the Dumska. The modern development of the square is formed by the buildings of the 1950s – 1970s. The square was repeatedly reconstructed and renamed. In 2001 the capital reconstruction of the square was carried out. Monuments, sculptures, fountains appeared, and in the centre of the square there is a column in the form of a female figure with a branch in hands symbolizing the independence of Ukraine. On the square are Glavpochtamt(General Post Office), the Council of Trade Unions, the Conservatory, the Hotel “Ukraine” and others.
X The Monument of Independence was erected in the centre of Independence Square in 2001 and symbolizes the independence of Ukraine. It represents a column, at the peak of which there is a statue of Oranta – the figure of a girl in a national costume with a viburnum branch in her hands. The monument is installed taking into account the technical mechanisms similar to the Motherland- Pechersk installation. Due to this the column can withstand any natural disasters. The pedestal of the statue is designed in the form of a temple, built in the style of the Ukrainian Baroque. The weight of the monument is 20 tons, height – 61 meters and is one of the highest monuments of the country.
X Kyiv Conservatory – National Music Academy of Ukraine named after P.I. Tchaikovsky, located in the central part of Independence Square. The Kyiv Conservatory was founded in 1913 on the basis of the Glinka Musical College, which was located at the intersection of Prorizna and Grinchenko streets. The building, located on the Maidan, was built in the 1890s and was the hotel “Continental”. During the World War II, the hotel was badly damaged, and only in the period of 1955-1958 the building was restored for the conservatory, and a concert hall was also completed. During its history, the Kyiv Conservatory has produced such students as Levko Revutsky, Borys Lyatoshinsky, Olexandr Bilash and others.
X The sign of the zero kilometre – or “the Winged Globe” monument, located on Independence Square next to the General Post Office building, was opened in 2001. and is a marble column at the peak of which is a blue ball with flying around the pigeons as symbols of the five continents that bear the laurel branch. The monument is also a geographical reference point of distance from the capital to the regional cities of Ukraine and the capitals of other countries of the world. The sign of zero kilometre is one of the popular places for meetings in Kyiv. It should be noted that the sign of the zero kilometre (English – Kilometre Zero) can be seen in many capitals of the world, for example, in France, Spain, Greece, Belarus, Israel, etc.
X The Lyadsky Gates is a monument erected on the Independence Square in 2001, and represents a gate at the top of which is the figure of the Archangel Michael as a symbol of the capital. The Lyadsky Gates was erected on the square in memory of the ancient history of Kyivan Rus. During the excavation in 1981 on the square scientists discovered the remains of defensive earthen ramparts and possibly the Lyadsky Gates. Even under Yaroslav the Wise there passed the southern line of the defensive rampart with the entrance into the city through the Lyadsky Gate, which were destroyed by the Tatar-Mongol yoke. In the middle of the XVII century at the site of the gates were built wooden, later stone gates – Pecherski Gates, which were demolished in 1830 in connection with the location of the market square. Until now, there is no consensus on the exact location of the Lyadsky Gates. Today at the foot of the monument you can see under the glass the remains of ancient constructions, presumably the stone foundation of the Pecherski Gates. Also, you can admire the ancient remains by visiting the restaurant “O.B.”, located in the underground passage of the shopping centre “Globus”.
X The shopping mall “Globus” is a shopping centre located in the underground part of Independence Square. It was opened in 2001 and consists of three lines, becoming the first large-scale trade and exhibition centre of Ukraine of the international level. The area of the shopping centre is 35,000 sq. km. In the shopping centre there are many boutiques, there is a supermarket, as well as restaurants, cafes and a fast-food network. The shopping centre is equipped with a modern air-conditioning system, escalators, there is an elevator and even a fountain in which tourists and guests of the capital like to throw coins for memory. Nowadays shopping centre “Globus” is the most visited trading platform.
X General Post Office (Glavposhtampt) is one of the main buildings located on Independence Square. It was erected in the 1950s in the style of the Soviet era, becoming the first large-scale reconstruction project of the post-war Khreshchatyk. As early as 1849, the first post office appeared on this site, which was owned by the nobleman A. Golovinsky. In 1939 the construction of a new post office was started, but in 1941 the building was blown up. Today on the territory of the General Post Office there is a Post Museum, where many postal rarities are collected.
X European Square – the Yevseikova Valley (XVII century.), later – the Kinna (Horse) Square (horse fairs were held), from the XIX century – Teatralna Square (in honour of the first city theatre built on the square), then the European one (because of the hotel with the same name at the site of the demolished theatre, today at the place of the hotel is located the Ukrainian house). In the XIX century the central composition of the square was a fountain. It is on the European Square the first tram was launched (1891), which went 85 years. In the period of 1869-1919 the square was called Tsarska Square in honour of the monument to Alexander II. Sometimes the citizens called Olexandrivska Square. In Soviet times, the square was called the Third International, and in its centre was installed a statue of a Red Army man. After World War II, the square was called Stalinska Square, since 1961 – Lenin’s Komsomol. The square bears the current name since 1991. The National Philharmonic, the Parliamentary Library, the Ukrainian House and the Dnipro Hotel are located on the square.
X National Philharmonic – built in 1882 on the project of V. Nikolaev as the House of Merchants’ Assembly, today – the Column Hall named after M. Lysenko. In this house were held balls, family holidays, charitable lotteries, literary and musical evenings. In the 1850s M. Lysenko was one of the organizers of the Philharmonic Society. He also created a literary and artistic society, the philharmonic society “Bayan”, the Kyiv Ukrainian Club. Since 1919 in the House of the Merchants’ Assembly was located the Proletarian House of Arts, then the House of Political Education, later the “Bolshevik” club, in the 1930s – Palace of Pioneers. During the occupation of Kyiv in the building was a German officer club. Since 1944 the Kyiv Philharmonic has resumed its work. In 1962, the Column Hall of the Kyiv State Philharmonic Society was named after M. Lysenko. To the 100th anniversary of the construction of the Merchants’ Assembly, this house was given the status of the monument of architecture. In 1994, the Philharmonic Society was given the status of the National Philharmonic of Ukraine. The National Philharmonic holds international competitions and festivals, takes part in international projects and presentations. In the history of the Column Hall of the Philharmonic, such world figures as L. Bernstein, S. Rachmaninov, M. Rostropovich, F. Shalyapin gave concerts.
X “Ukrainian House” – the national centre for business and cultural cooperation, the venue for exhibitions, congresses and forums. The building was built in 1982 as a Museum of Lenin, which existed until 1993 and where schoolchildren were solemnly accepted into the ranks of the pioneers. The building has a concert hall, exhibition centres, art gallery, buffet tables, a restaurant. Today concerts, literary and art meetings, conferences, presentations and exhibitions are held here.
X Shevchenko Boulevard is a boulevard in the centre of the capital, connecting Bessarabska Square and Peremogy Square. It appeared as a street in the 1830s under the name of the Bulvarna, in the middle of which was laid a lime alley. Later, along the alley, poplars were planted, which today still adorn the boulevard. The modern name the boulevard bears since 1919 in honour of the great Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko. The development of the boulevard falls on the second half of the XIX century. There appeared mansions, profitable houses and public institutions. Botanical gardens were laid (today the Botanical Garden named after Fomin), as well as the foundation of the Volodymyr Cathedral. On one side of the boulevard there went a tram, and on the other side there – cars. In the 1950’s the tram was replaced by a trolleybus, and the car traffic began on both sides of the alley. Boulevard is preserved to this day such architectural monuments as: the Premier Palace Hotel (№ 5-7), the M. Tereshchenko’s mansion (№12), the first male gymnasium (№14), the St. Volodymyr Cathedral (№20), the Botanical Garden, the mansion of I. Tereschenko (№34), the former hotel “Kyiv” (№36 \ 14), etc.
X The Premier Palace Hotel is a five-star hotel located on the corner of Shevchenko Boulevard and Pushkinska Street (№5-7 / 29). The hotel was built at the site of the estate, purchased in the late XIX century by merchant of the 1st guild Lev Ginsburg. The beginning of construction of the hotel falls on 1909, was opened in 1912. It was then called the Palast-Hotel and offered its guests a top class service – comfortable rooms with hot water and even a telephone. There was a restaurant at the hotel. This hotel is also notable for the fact that it was here in 1918 hetman Skoropadsky signed a document on the abdication of power. During the German occupation, the building was partially destroyed. In the period of 1953-2002 the hotel was called “Ukraine”. In due time Olexandr Vertynsky and Lyubov Orlova stayed at the hotel. Today Premier Palace is one of the best hotels in the city.
X The National Museum of Shevchenko is located on the Shevchenko Boulevard, 12, in the former mansion of Mykola Tereshchenko. M. Tereshchenko is a famous sugar maker and philanthropist, whose name bears the street crossing Shevchenko boulevard. The building of the museum belongs to the national cultural heritage and is a landmark of the architecture of the first half of the ХІХ century. The exquisite decoration of the mansion is the heads of the lions. In the museum itself are personal belongings of Taras Shevchenko, his paintings, documents, etc. The main value of the museum is the portrait of V. Zhukovsky, which was drawn in the lottery for the redemption of Shevchenko from the serfs.
X The first male gymnasium is a late classic building on Shevchenko Boulevard №14 and is an architectural monument. It was built according to the project of the architect Beretti in the period of 1847-1850. Initially, the building was intended for the gymnasium, but in the period of 1851-1857 it was occupied by the Cadet Corps. At one time in the gymnasium, such famous personalities as the aircraft designer I. Sikorsky, the writer M. Bulgakov and others were studied. During the Soviet era, the Humanities Department of the Shevchenko National University was transferred to the gymnasium walls. Today the Institute of Philology of Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University is located here.
X St. Volodymyr’s Cathedral – built in the Old Byzantine style in honour of Prince Volodymyr the Baptist. The idea of creating a cathedral belongs to Metropolitan Philaret Amfiteatrov. Officially it is believed that the construction of the church was started in 1852 on the order of Nicholas I. By 1859, about 100 thousand rubles were collected. The original project was developed by architect I. Shtrom, but the project was too expensive. Later, the architect A. Beretti was involved in the planning of the cathedral. The cathedral was erected on the project of A. Beretti and the first stone was laid down on June 15, 1862, on the day of the memory of Prince Volodymyr. Due to design shortcomings, the construction was suspended. In 1875, by the order of Alexander Nikolayevich, construction was resumed and completed in 1882. In order to finish the iconostasis the marble was brought from Italy, France, Belgium and Spain. The mosaic works were performed by masters from Venice. The main value of the cathedral is the unique paintings, thanks to which the temple received the status of a cultural monument. The design of the cathedral was made by artists V.Vasnetsov, M.Vrubel, M.Nesterov. The main beauty of the cathedral is the work of V.Vasnetsov “The Virgin with the Child” in the centre of the altar. In the 1930s the relics of St. Barbara, brought to Kyiv by Prince Svyatopolk and kept in the St. Michael’s Monastery, were transferred to the cathedral. In the period of 1929-1941 the Museum of anti-religious propaganda worked in the cathedral. Since 1944 it was opened and no longer closed.
X Fomin Botanical Garden – one of the oldest botanical gardens in Ukraine, the collection of which has about 10 000 species of plants, and the collection of cacti was the largest in the USSR. The botanical garden was laid in 1839 on a wasteland and in ravines, in 1841 a greenhouse complex was built, terraces are preserved to the present days. In the period of 1914-1935 the director of the Botanical Garden was A. Fomin, whose name after his death is beared by the garden. In the period of 1908-1913 on the territory of the botanical garden was a zoo. Also on the territory is the previously secret government communication facility “K-2”. During the German occupation many valuable plants died, some were taken to Germany. Since the 1960s the garden is proclaimed a monument of landscape art of national importance. In 1977 was built one of the largest greenhouse at that time – the climatron. In 2004 was created the Museum of botanical history. The museum and the garden itself are a scientific and educational centre, here also are held excursions. The museum takes part in the educational work of the Faculty of Biology of the Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University.
X The Tereshchenko mansion – a building in the style of Venetian Gothic, built in 1875 on the order of the wife of the collegiate assessor Filizia Modzelevska, is located on the Shevchenko Boulevard, 34. Later the mansion was bought by patron and sugar producer Ivan Tereshchenko. With the coming of the Soviet power, the mansion was nationalized, after which the Ministry of Road Traffic and later residential apartments were located there. Since the 1980s the building is used as an administrative building. Today there locate mainly offices. The building is an architectural monument.
X The former hotel “Kyiv” – an angular building with a Neo-Gothic turret and is located on the ShevchenkoBoulevard, 36/14 and was built in 1883 on the order of the Kyiv pharmacist Mykola Fromet (architect Nikolaev). On the 1st floor a pharmacy was opened, after which the house was called the house of the pharmacist Fromett. The rest of the floors of the City Duma of Kyiv hired under military barracks (there was even a military headquarters here). Since 1889 the house has new owners who opened the hotel “Kyiv”, but the pharmacy in the house was also located on the 1 st floor. Today the building is an architectural monument. In it locates a coffee house, offices and, of course, a pharmacy.