Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861) – the great Ukrainian poet and symbol of Ukraine, the author of the world-famous collection “Kobzar”. Known not only as a singer, but also as a prose writer, artist, political and public figure. She devoted all her creativity to the Ukrainian people, describing the fate and hard life of the Ukrainians of that time. Literary heritage of the poet is considered the basis of modern Ukrainian literature and in many respects the literary Ukrainian language. His works have been translated into many languages of the world. More than 30 countries have monuments to the great Kobzar.
In Kiev, the name of Shevchenko is one of the main boulevards of the city, the national opera and the national university, in front of which a monument to the poet is erected. Church of the Nativity of Christ on Podol in the people called Shevchenkova. It was here that the funeral of the Ukrainian poet took place on May 6-8, 1861, on the way to Kanev (burial place). To get acquainted with the biography of T.Shevchenko, see his work as an artist you can in the museum on the Shevchenko Blvd., 12. Also there is a literary-memorial house-museum, in which lived Shevchenko in 1846-1847 (Shevchenko Lane, 8-a).
Lesya Ukrainka (1871-1913) – Ukrainian writer and cultural figure. It is included in the list of the most famous poetesses of Ukraine. Lesya Ukrainka’s works are mostly written in lyrical genre. Particular attention should be paid to the drama-extravaganza Lesnaya Pesnya (Ukrainian Song), which became the pinnacle of Lesya’s art and one of the first prototypes of fantasy in Ukrainian literature. Based on the work of the film, films were shot, and ballet was also staged. The poetess was buried at the Baykovoye cemetery in Kiev. The grave of Lesia Ukrainka has the status of a monument of history of national importance. In Kiev on the Saksahanskoho str., 97 is the house-museum of the Ukrainian writer, in which she lived with her family at different times throughout 1899-1910.
Ivan Franko (1856-1916) – an outstanding Ukrainian writer, publicist, translator, scholar, public and political figure. He was one of the nominees for the Nobel Prize for Literature, but because of death in May 1916, he was excluded from the list of applicants. According to rough estimates, the creative heritage of Franko includes several thousand works. Popular among them are “Zakhar Berkut”, “Stolen Happiness”, “Borislav”, “Cross paths”, based on which films were shot and performances were staged.
Ivan Franko has visited Kiev many times, where he had many friends and like-minded people, among them Lesya Ukrainka, Saksahansky, Lysenko. At the Museum of the outstanding figures of Ukrainian culture there is an exposition “Ivan Franko and Kiev” (Saksahanskoho str., 93-b). In 2016 the apartment-museum of Franko family was opened (Volodymyrska str., 48-a). In 1949 Soviet power forcibly moved the family of Taras Franco, son of Ivan Franko, to this house. The museum was created on the initiative of the grandson of the great writer.
Sholem Aleichem (1859-1916) – a famous Jewish writer, one of the founders of modern fiction in Yiddish. Born in the Kyiv region, the life of the writer and his work are closely connected with Ukraine. Therefore, in the works of Sholem Aleichem, there are often descriptions of Ukrainian nature and local color, Ukrainian vocabulary and folklore are used. On the Velyka Vasylkivska str., 5 is a museum-apartment dedicated to the work of Sholem Aleichem and his life in Kiev. At this address the writer lived in 1896-1903. This was the time of his active creative activity. Here he wrote “Menachem Mendl”, “In the small world of small people”, some short stories from the collection of stories “Tevye the Milkman”, translated into dozens of languages of the world.
Mikhail Bulgakov (1891-1940) – Soviet writer, author of the world-famous novel “The Master and Margarita.” The life of M. Bulgakov is closely connected with Kiev – here he was born, graduated from high school and received a medical education at Kiev University. At the end of the university, for some time he conducted private practice as a venereologist. It was during this period that M. Bulgakov worked on medical stories for the cycle “Notes of a Young Doctor”, which was the beginning of his writing activity.
During his life, Bulgakov wrote many novels, novels, plays and stories. In addition to the novel “Master and Margarita”, which brought the writer world fame, there are also works “Dog Heart”, “Days of Turbins”, “White Guard”. At the Andriivsky Descent, 13 there is a literary-memorial house-museum of Bulgakov – “The House of Turbins”. Here Mikhail Bulgakov lived and worked in 1906-1919. Today it is the only museum in the world where Bulgakov’s relics are collected. Also part of the exposition devoted to the life and work of the writer can be seen in the Museum of one street (Andriivsky Descent, 2-b).
Viktor Nekrasov (1911-1987) – a Soviet dissident writer. The author of the famous story “In the trenches of Stalingrad,” for which V. Nekrasov was awarded the Stalin Prize II degree. The story was republished in a total circulation of several million copies and translated into 36 languages. Victor Nekrasov was born in Kiev and spent most of his life here. His best works were written in the period 1946-1974 and became the property of Soviet literature – “In My Hometown”, “First Acquaintance”, etc. Attached great importance to the events of Babi Yar. Outraged by the disregard of the Kiev authorities to the memory of those shot by Babyn Yar and the absence of a commemorative sign, V. Nekrasov sharply criticized the article “Why is it not done?”, published at “Literaturnaya Gazeta” in 1959. With the coming to power of N. Khrushchev and in subsequent years, the writer’s work was severely criticized.
In 1974, KGB officers in V.Nekrasov’s apartment were searched – books, manuscripts, a tape recorder, a typewriter and even a camera were seized. After V.Nekrasov was expelled from the Writers’ Union and already in September 1974 with his wife expelled from the country. The rest of his life he lived in Paris, where he was buried. On the building on the Khreshchatyk str., 15 installed a memorial plaque in memory of the fact, that here writer lived in apartment № 10 in 1950-1974. The Museum of the same street preserved photographs and autographs of V. Nekrasov. In the memorial park of Bnei Aish (Israel) a monument with the names of outstanding non-Jewish people fighting against anti-Semitism was opened, where the name of V. Nekrasov is on the first place in the list.
Jaroslav Hasek (1883–1923) – a famous Czech writer-satirist, got world fame thanks to the written novel “The Adventures of the Brave Soldier Schweik”. The popular humorist of his time Hasek was directly related to Kiev. In 1915, as a prisoner of war, Hasek was held in a camp near Kiev. After, having joined the Czechoslovak Legion, he was appointed clerk of the 1st regiment name by Jana Husa. Already in June 1916 he worked in the editorial office of the Kiev newspaper “Czechoslovak”. Here Hasek wrote the story “The Brave Soldier Svejk in Russian captivity”, which continued the cycle of the famous novel about the soldier. The story was published in the summer of 1917 by a separate publication in the printing house “Czechoslovak”.
The novel about the adventures of Švejk left an indelible mark on the world culture, and the name Švejk became a household name. Based on the novel, movies were shot, performances were staged. So at the Frank Theater, the play “Švejk” is still sold out today. Next to the theater in the park is a monument to the founder of the theater G.Yure in the image of a brave soldier Švejk – one of his favorite roles. On the facade of the building on the Volodymyrska str., 36 the memorial plaque of Y. Hashek is installed. In the former hotel “Prague” writer lived and worked in 1916-1918, where the editorial office of the “Czechoslovak” was located.
Konstantin Paustovsky (1892-1968) – a famous Soviet writer with Ukrainian roots, was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature. World fame brought to the writer such works as “Story of Life”, “Telegram”, “Golden Rose”. The love of K. Paustovsky to Kiev arose from childhood. Here he received a fundamental education in the gymnasium of the city, entered the Kiev University of St. Vladimir (today – Shevchenko’s University). So in the story “Far Years” K.Paustovsky writes about his studies and life in Kiev in his youthful years. And his first story “On the Water”, the novice writer gave to the Kiev editorial board the almanac “Fires”, which to his surprise was printed without abbreviations.
Later in the Kiev magazine “Knight” was published another work of the author – the story “Four”. In the story “The Beginning of an Unknown Century,” K. Paustovsky describes how events of 1917 took place in Kiev. In 1918 Constantine took a job as a proofreader in the newspaper “Kiev thought”, in 1919 – literary secretary of the magazine “Theater”, but by the end of the year he left Kiev. K.Paustovsky repeatedly came to the city of his youth, supported friendship with Kiev writers, participated in the Writers’ Union of Ukraine in 1954. K.Paustovsky died in Moscow in 1968. In Kiev in the secondary school N 135 the museum of Paustovsky is located. Today in the capital there are more than fifty addresses related to the life, study, work and creativity of an outstanding writer.